Sustainable Development Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities
Inequality is the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities, is a concept very much at the heart of social justice theories.
As part of the 2030 Agenda’s aim to promote inclusion and leave no one behind, heads of States pledged to reduce inequality within and among countries.
In aspiring to promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all members of society, Goal 10 draws attention to attributes and circumstances that affect the risk of exclusion and disadvantage, specifically age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion and economic status.
Inequalities based on income, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, race, class, ethnicity, religion and opportunity continue to persist across the world, within and among countries. Inequality also threatens long term social and economic development, lowers the chance of poverty reduction and destroys people’s sense of fulfilment and self-worth. Some groups in rural areas, women, young people, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples and others have persistently gathered at the bottom of distributions. Furthermore, real wage growth has constantly declined since 2015 and at the same time, a warming climate, demographic change, decent work deficits, political crises, technological change and conflict risk has exacerbated inequalities showing that actions are not taken toward equality in both, opportunities and outcomes.
Income inequality continues to rise in many parts of the world, even if the bottom 40 percent of the population in many countries have experienced positive growth rates.
Globally, a shift of income away from labour towards capital has contributed to rising inequality, and inequalities in opportunities persist in some areas where discriminatory laws, policies and practices are not being addressed quickly enough.
The 2030 Agenda calls for a “just, equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs of the most vulnerable are met.” Inequality within and among nations continues to be a significant concern despite progress in and efforts at narrowing disparities of opportunity, income and power.
An estimated 69 million children under five years of age die from mostly preventable causes. Rural women are three times more likely to die while giving birth than women in urban centres. Persons with disabilities are the world’s largest minority. 80 percent of them live in developing countries. Women and girls with disabilities face double discrimination. Although these are just a few examples, it is an issue that affects every country in the world.
Reducing inequality requires transformative change. Greater efforts are needed to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, and invest more in health, education, social protection and decent jobs especially for young people, migrants and other vulnerable communities.
Within countries, it is important to empower and promote inclusive social and economic growth. By ensuring equal opportunity and reducing inequalities of income, we can eliminate discriminatory laws, policies and practices.
Governments and other stakeholders can promote safe, regular and responsible migration, through planned and well-managed policies, for the millions of people who left their homes seeking better lives due to war, discrimination, poverty, lack of opportunity and other drivers of migration.
However, since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda in 2015, there has been some positive movement as measured by SDG 10 targets. In 64 percent of the countries, with data, the incomes of the poorest 40 per cent of the population grew faster than the national average. The global average cost of sending remittances has declined in recent years, although rates are still more than double SDG targets.
According to a new report published by Oxfam International, It could take more than 10 years for the world’s poorest people to recover from the economic fallout of the ongoing COVID-19 induced pandemic.
It urged governments to act fast and “set concrete, time-bound targets to reduce inequality”.
The pandemic has hurt people living in poverty far harder than the rich and has had particularly severe effects on women, Black people, Afro-descendants, Indigenous Peoples, and historically marginalised and oppressed communities around the world, the report said. The pandemic also revealed that more than three billion people lacked access to healthcare and that three-quarters of workers had no social protections such as unemployment benefit or sick pay. In low- and lower-middle-income countries more than half of workers were in poverty despite having jobs.
We can reduce inequality together by spreading the word, Raising our voice against any type of discrimination, supporting migrants and refugees in our communities. volunteering in a local refugee camp, gathering or donating the appliances, food, clothes needed.